CLARENCE BICKNELL (1842-1918)
- 1838 Queen Victoria crowned 28 June 1838 The first photograph taken, by Louis Daguerre in France and William Henry Fox-Talbot in Britain.
- 1840 his father began to buy the works of art which were to form one of the great Victorian collections.
- 1842 Clarence Bicknell was born 27th October at Herne Hill near London
- 1850 Clarence's mother Lucinda Sarah née Browne died
- 1851 The Great Exhibition opened at Crystal Palace
- 1852 Napoléon III, début du Second Empire
- 1855 Giovanni Ruffini publishes Doctor Antonio set in Bordighera
- 1860 Edward Whymper starts his ten years of “scrambles in the alps”
- 1861 Clarence’s father Elhanan Bicknell died. Proclamation of the Kingdom of Italy
- 1862 Bordighera first appears in guide books. Clarence went up to Trinity College, Cambridge, to read mathematics.
- 1863 The great sale of Elhanan’s collection "Painted for Mr. Bicknell" at Christies
- 1865 Clarence graduated from Cambridge and took orders in the Church of England
- 1866 Clarence appointed Curate of St. Paul, Walworth, Surrey. He was there till 1872
- 1867 Sir Thomas Hanbury settled in La Mortola
- 1869 17-20 novembre : Inauguration du canal de Suez.
- 1870 Proclamation de la Troisième République. Rome replaces Florence as the capital city of Italy. 2nd October
- 1872 Railway reaches Bordighera
- 1873 Clarence appointed as a clergyman to St. Peter’s Church, Stoke-on-Tern, Market Drayton, Shropshire where he stayed till 1878 or 1881.
- 1876 Clarence began to have serious religious doubts, and decided to see the world.
- 1877 The world's first recording of the human voice, by Thomas Edison,
- 1878 Monet paints “Bordighère”
Some sources say that in this year, “Clarence aged thirty six settled in Bordighera, on the Italian Riviera, as chaplain to the Anglican Church” However, Clarence’s own writing in Chapter III of “A Guide to the Prehistoric Rock Engravings in the Italian Maritime Alps” says his first winter there was in 1879.
- 1879 Clarence spent his first winter on the Cote d’Azur 1
- 1881 Clarence first visited the Vallée des Merveilles, early in June, on the west side of Mont Bego2
Clarences: sketches in Tarragena
The son of Clarence's sister Ada, Edward Elhanan Berry, came to Bordighera as manager of a bank, as Thomas Cooke's agent, and later as British vice-consul.
St. Peter’s Church, Stoke-on-Tern, records Clarence’s departure, even though from other accounts he had been in Bordighera for three years.
- 1882 Clarences: sketches in Luzern
Clarence’s cousin Phiz (Charles Dickens’ illustrator) died in London
- 1883 Clarence decided on the site in Via Romana, Bordighera, for the museum
Clarences: sketches in Florence and Pisa
3 kilometre road tunnel at the Colle di Tende, first under the Alps, opened.
- 1884 Clarence had completed over a thousand botanical drawings
- 1885 Clarence made his second visit to the Vallée des Merveilles and sketched about 50 rock engravings. He spent the night at La Minière. This is the date at which Clarence’s interest was first captivated by the mysterious marks on the rock.
Clarence’s oeuvre Flowering Plants and Ferns of the Riviera and Neighbouring Mountains published
Sketches in Florence, November
- 1885 Charles Gordon is killed at Khartoum
- 1887 Dr. Zanenhof, an oculist in Warsaw, invents Esperanto Severe earthquake in Italy
- 1888 Museo Bicknell opened. Clarence: Sketches in Vernante (nr Cuneo), 20th August
- 1889 6 mai : Inauguration de la Tour Eiffel. Exposition universelle. Clarence tours Italy and Egypt ending early 1890
- 1892 Rudolf Diesel patents the diesel engine. Queen Victoria takes a holiday in Menton
- 1893 Clarence excursion notebooks listing flower species
- 1895 21-year-old Guglielmo Marconi invents the radio telegraph
- 1896 Clarence’s "Flora of Bordighera and San Remo" (unillustrated hand-list) published
- 1897 Clarence visited Vallée des Merveilles and Val Fontanalba. Rented the house of M Pellegrino3 at Val Casterino for the summer for the first time. Started rubbings of the engravings. Clarence reports to the Society of Antiquarians of London (published in its proceedings) and read a paper to the Societa Ligusticà in Genoa. Clarence joins the Esperanto movement. Edward Berry and Margaret Serecold were married
- 1898 Clarence visited Vallée des Merveilles and Val Fontanalba for three weeks in August. 538 rubbings from 12 trips and about 100 photographs.
- 1901 Clarence visited Vallée des Merveilles and Val Fontanalba, staying in M. Pellegrino’s house in Casterino again4, and concentrating on the Val Fontanalba. Queen Victoria died. Her son, Edward VII, became King
- 1902 Clarence visited Vallée des Merveilles and Val Fontanalba. First substantive report on the rock engravings in “A Guide to the Prehistoric Rock Engravings in the Italian Maritime Alps” first edition 1902, last edition 1913. End of the Boer War
- 1903 First manually controlled, fixed wing, motorized aircraft takes place in Kitty Hawk, North Carolina by Orville and Wilbur Wright. Professor Artur Issel publishes his prehistory of Liguria. M Pellegrino had sold his house and Clarence was not able to spend any summers at Casterino until the Casa Fontanalba had been constructed in 1906.
- 1904 Edward and Margaret Berry laid the foundation stone of the Villa Monte Verde. The Entente Cordiale was signed, 8 April
- 1905 Clarence started building a house for the summer at Casterino, the Casa Fontanalba, after a design by Robert MacDonald. The builder was Signor Lanteri of Tenda, supervised by M. Pellegrino5. The house was completed in summer and autumn 1905, the terrace in spring 1906. Clarence and Luigi attended the Universal Esperanto Congress in Boulogne-sur-Mer, France
- 1906 Clarence arrives in June with Luigi and Mercede Pollini to inhabit the house. Casa Fontanalba Visitors’ Book starts 16th June
- 1909 Émile Cartailhac (1845-1921), French prehistorian, one of the founding fathers of the studies of the cave art, visited the Casa Fontanalba, 17th August. Clarence discovers the engraving he calls the “Chief of the Tribes
- 1910 A little more land annexed to the garden of the Casa Fontanalba and a wire-netting fence erected to protect the garden from cows and goats. Clarence elected to lead the Bordighera Esperanto group. Déchelette’s Manuel d’Archéologie uses Clarence’s data as a basis for his account and dates the figures to the Bronze Age period 1.
- 1911 Clarence’s album for Margaret Berry is a coronation procession of the flowers of Fontanalba to celebrate the coronation of King George V.
- 1912 Clarence and Luigi attended the Esperantist Congress in Cracow, Poland, for two weeks in August as there was still snow on the best slopes of the Fontanalba and they could do little work.
- 1913 Clarence and Luigi attended the Universal Esperanto Congress in Bern, Switzerland, 24-31 August. First dams built at Les Mesches near Casterino for electricity generation
- 1914 World War I broke out. Clarence was at the Esperantist Congress in Paris looking after a party of blind Esperantists whom he safely escorted back to their homes in Italy Clarence, aged 72, continues working on the wall decorations in the Casa Fontamalba
- 1915 Italy enters World War I on the side of the Anglo-French Allies
- 1918 Clarence Bicknell died on the terrace of the Casa Fontanalba on July 17th
- 1929 Huge railway station built at San Dalmazzo di Tenda
- 1931 The Berrys publish their guide book “At the western gate of Italy”
- 1936 Last evidence of Edward and Margaret Berry using Casa Fontanalba.
We are keen that all the pages of this web site are available in the universal language of Esperanto in which Clarence Bicknell believed so ardently. If you are interested in attempting a translation of one or other page please let us know by email, knowing that we will submit the translation to more than one international Esperanto association for checking. Thanks!
MB 13 June 2013
Ni estas akra ke ĉiuj paĝoj de ĉi tiu retejo estas disponeblaj en la universala languiage de Esperanto en kiu Clarence Bicknell kredis tiel arde. Se vi interesiĝas provanta traduko de unu aŭ alia paĝo bonvolu sciigu nin per retpoŝto, sciante, ke ni submetas la tradukadon al pli ol unu internacian Esperanto-asocio por kontroli. Dankon!